posted in: Microcontroller | 0

1. Introduction to PWM

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a method of pulse width modulation or adjustment of the output voltage intensity value. PWM is commonly used in motor control.

Some of the concepts of PWM include:

  • Duty cycle : high pulse percentage.
  • Period : is the pulse period (including the total time high + low).
  • Pulse width is the value of the high relative to the period.
  • PTO is a square pulse with 50% high time, 50% low time.
  • Pulse amplitude: is the voltage value of the pulse when it is high.

Duty cycle calculation formula:

Duty cycle = pulse width x 100/period

2. PWM in STM32F103C8T6

This microcontroller has 4 Timers: TIM1, TIM2, TIM3, TIM4 to generate PWM pulses. Each channel has 4 small channels, Timer 1 alone has 4 more island channels. For simple PWM modulation applications, it is common to use one of the other three Timers.

3. Programming with the ST library

In this article, I will use TIM2 – channle 4 to generate PWM pulses with Duty cycle of 75%.

  • Clock level and timer configuration 2 channel 4
/*Cap clock*/
RCC_APB1PeriphClockCmd(RCC_APB1Periph_TIM2, ENABLE);
/*Cau hinh chân*/
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Pin  = GPIO_Pin_3;
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Mode = GPIO_Mode_AF_PP;
GPIO_InitStructure.GPIO_Speed = GPIO_Speed_50MHz;
GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStructure);
/* cau hinh timer base */
TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_Prescaler = 7199;
TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_CounterMode = TIM_CounterMode_Up;
TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_Period = 9999;
TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_ClockDivision = 0;
TIM_TimeBaseStructure.TIM_RepetitionCounter = 0;
TIM_TimeBaseInit(TIM2, &TIM_TimeBaseStructure);
  • Configure PWM mode
 /* cau hinh channel4 o mode PWM */
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCMode = TIM_OCMode_PWM1;
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OutputState = TIM_OutputState_Enable;
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_Pulse = 7500;
  TIM_OCInitStructure.TIM_OCPolarity = TIM_OCPolarity_High;
  TIM_OC4Init(TIM2, &TIM_OCInitStructure);
  TIM_OC4PreloadConfig(TIM2, TIM_OCPreload_Enable);
  TIM_ARRPreloadConfig(TIM2, ENABLE);
  /* cho phep TIM2 hoat dong */
  • Duty cycle adjustment function

The function TIM_SetComparex(TIMy,z) is used to adjust the pulse width of the PWM channel configuring SetComparex to correspond to the x channel of TIMy with the value z. So, if to generate a 75% PWM pulse, we have the formula: Duty cycle = 7500/(9999 + 1)*100 = 75%

Note: In the article, the pulse is configured as 7500, so there is no need to use this adjustment function.

Sample code link

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.